History Of Urban Form Before The Industrial Revolution Pdf //FREE\\ Free Download
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History Of Urban Form Before The Industrial Revolution Pdf Free Download
The book details how the urban form-determining technological developments all contributed to urban change. It looks at the way the growing industrial city provided the materials and the need for consumer products, and how this impacted on the social, cultural, economic and political structure of cities. Mechanisation led to massive changes in the scope of employment, with the emergence of new jobs and new industries, including the construction and operation of large mechanised factories. The need for a larger urban workforce led to the spread of corresponding industries, and to workers’ growing demand for houses and other local amenities.
Industrialisation coincided with a growing need for ways to connect people with the urban economy, with goods and services. The end of the 17th century saw people move into larger towns, and cities spread outwards, toward the middle, to free up land for farming and industry. The requirement for infrastructural developments for industries and population also necessitated a massive upgrade of transport and communications in that time, with great improvements in transportation leading to the emergence of the railways and the growth of cross-continental transportation. As more people left the countryside, cities also became more attractive for permanent settlement. Full-time employment and the, by then, better paying jobs in industry attracted increasing numbers of people into urban jobs, encouraging the birth of the industrial working class, and ending the ideals of the agrarian poor.
Today, in the 21st century, the book analyses an urban world that had changed to the extent that the industrial revolution happened in the 18th, instead of the 19th, century. It shows how contemporary cities have not escaped the effects of industrialisation, but have been shaped by them. Covered in an international perspective, looking at cities from Europe, the U.S., the Middle East and Asia, this new edition includes the latest archaeological finds and, for the first time, a large number of contemporary illustrations, making the book visually as interesting as ever. The determinist approach has had to change since the early 20th century, following the advances of economics and geography, and of the global debate on the planning needs of cities.